The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella serovars and the antimicrobial susceptibility in chickens and poultry meat products in rural areas in Nigeria. The study was an observational cross-sectional investigation in which the target population included exotic and local chickens in Maiduguri main markets, chickens from farms, and free-range local chickens. A total of 865 samples were collected from feces, kidney, lungs, cecum, intestine, liver, heart, gizzard, and cloacal swabs from 525 different chickens. Salmonella was isolated from 130 of the samples. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select 41 isolates out of the 130 strains for serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Thirty-nine out of the 41 samples serotyped yielded Salmonella Hiduddify; two yielded a rough Salmonella serovar. The 39 Salmonella Hiduddify isolates and the two rough isolates were highly similar by PFGE typing, indicating that all of the isolates were of the same serovar. A low frequency of resistance was found among the isolates, except for resistance to ciprofloxacin for which 23 (56%) of the isolates tested exhibited resistance. This study documents for the first time the isolation of Salmonella Hiduddify in chickens and shows that this serovar is widespread in rural areas in Nigeria. It also documents a high frequency of fluoroquinone resistance in the isolates indicating the presence of selective pressure in the environment. Further studies should be conducted to reveal if the serovar is present in eggs and causes salmonellosis among the general population.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, 2009, Vol 6, Issue 4, p. 425-430