We report on the construction of a high-resolution comparative map of porcine chromosome 17 (SSC17) focusing on evolutionary breakpoints with human chromosomes. The comparative map shows high homology with human chromosome 20 but suggests more limited homologies with other human chromosomes. SSC17 is of particular interest in studies of chromosomal organization due to the presence of QTLs that affect meat quality and carcass composition. A total of 158 pig ESTs available in databases or developed by the Sino-Danish Pig Genome Sequencing Consortium were mapped using the INRA-University of Minnesota porcine radiation hydrid panel. The high-resolution map was further anchored by fluorescence in situ hybridization. This study confirmed the extensive conservation between SSC17 and HSA20 and enabled the gene order to be determined. The homology of the SSC17 pericentromeric region was extended to other human chromosomes (HSA4, HSA8) and the chromosomal breakpoint boundaries were accurately defined. In total 15 breakpoints were identified.