The development of gymnolaemate Ectoprocta includes a larval stage of either the coronate or the cyphonautes type. Herein, we provide the first description of the larval neural anatomy of a coronate larva using immunocytochemical methods. We used antibodies against the neurotransmitters serotonin and FMRFamide and followed the fate of immunoreactive cells through metamorphosis. The larval serotonergic nervous system of Triphyllozoon mucronatum consists of an apical commissure, one pair of lateral axons, a coronate nerve net, an internal nerve mesh, and one pair of axons innervating the frontal organ. FMRFamide is only found in the larval commissure and in the lateral axons. The entire serotonergic and FMRFamidergic nervous system is lost during metamorphosis and the adult neural structures form independent of the larval ones. In the postlarval zooid, both neurotransmitters are detected in the cerebral commissure, in cell bodies located at the base of the lophophore, and in neurites connecting these somata to the cerebral commissure. These findings differ significantly from that observed in other lophotrochozoans, where certain larval neural features are either incorporated in the adult nervous system and/or have inductive functions during its ontogeny. The occurrence of a larval commissure and the lack of a serotonergic or FMRFamidergic apical organ in T. mucronatum are unique among lophotrochozoan larvae, which usually have a distinct apical organ containing serotonergic cells. Our data show that the larval neuroanatomy and the processes that underlie the reorganization of larval organ systems during metamorphosis may vary much more among lophotrochozoan taxa than previously thought.