Presenilins (PSs) are involved in processing several proteins such as the amyloid precursor protein (APP), as well as in pathways for cell death and survival. We previously showed that some familial Alzheimer's disease PS mutations cause increased basal and acetylcholine muscarinic receptor-stimulated phospholipase C (PLC) activity which was gamma-secretase dependent. To further evaluate the dependence of PLC on PSs we measured PLC activity and the activation of variant protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking either PS1, PS2, or both. PLC activity and PKCalpha and PKCgamma activations were significantly lower in PS1 and PS2 double knockout MEFs after PLC stimulation. Protein levels of PKCalpha and PKCgamma were lower in PS1 and PS2 double knockout MEFs. In contrast, PKCdelta levels were significantly elevated in PS1 and PS2 double knockout as well as in PS1 knockout MEFs. Also, PKCdelta levels were lowered after transfection of PS1 into PS1 knockout or PS double knockout MEFs. Using APP knockout MEFs we showed that the expression of PKCalpha, but not the other PKC isoforms is partially dependent on APP and can be regulated by APP intracellular domain (AICD). These results show that PLC and PKC activations are modulated by PS and also that PSs differentially regulate the expression of PKC isoforms by both APP/AICD-dependent and independent mechanisms.
Journal of Neurochemistry, 2007, Vol 102, Issue 3, p. 848-57
Alzheimer Disease; Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor; Animals; Brain; Cells, Cultured; Down-Regulation; Fibroblasts; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic; Isoenzymes; Mice; Mice, Knockout; Presenilin-1; Presenilin-2; Presenilins; Protein Kinase C; Protein Kinase C-alpha; Protein Kinase C-delta; Signal Transduction; Transfection; Type C Phospholipases