PURPOSE: Application of an abdominal binder is often part of a standard postoperative regimen after ventral hernia repair to reduce pain and seroma formation. However, there is lack of evidence of the clinical effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pain- and seroma-reducing effect of an abdominal binder in patients undergoing laparoscopic umbilical or epigastric hernia repair. METHODS: Based on power analysis, a minimum of 54 patients undergoing laparoscopic umbilical and epigastric hernia repair were to be included. Patients were randomized to abdominal binders vs. no abdominal binders during the first postoperative week. Standardized surgical technique, anaesthesia, and analgesic regimens were used and study observers were blinded towards the intervention. Postoperative pain (visual analogue score) on day 1 was the primary outcome. In addition, ultrasonographic evaluation of seroma formation and several subjective patient-related parameters were registered. Furthermore, patients in the abdominal binder group were asked to rate benefits or discomforts of wearing the binder. RESULTS: Data from 56 patients (abdominal binder, n = 28; no binder, n = 28) were available for analysis. No significant intergroup differences in postoperative pain or any of the other surgical outcomes, including seroma formation, were found. However, the abdominal binder group reported subjective beneficial effect of wearing the binder in 24 of the 28 patients (86%). No adverse effects of the abdominal binder were found. CONCLUSIONS: There were no effects of an abdominal binder on pain, movement limitation, fatigue, seroma formation, general well-being, or quality of life. However, most patients claimed a subjective beneficial effect of using their abdominal binder.