Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress that blunt insulin response in its target tissues, leading to insulin resistance (IR). IR is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle is responsible for 75% of total insulin-dependent glucose uptake; consequently, skeletal muscle IR is considered to be the primary defect of systemic IR development. Interestingly, some obese people stay insulin-sensitive and metabolically healthy. With the aim of understanding this difference and identifying the mechanisms responsible for insulin sensitivity maintenance/IR development during obesity, we explored the role of the latent endoribonuclease (RNase L) in skeletal muscle cells. RNase L is a regulator of innate immunity, of double-stranded RNA sensors and of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling. It is regulated during inflammation by interferons and its activity is dependent on its binding to 2-5A, an oligoadenylate synthesized by oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS). Increased expression of RNase L or downregulation of its inhibitor (RLI) improved insulin response in mouse myogenic C2C12 cells and in primary human myotubes from normal-weight subjects treated with palmitate, a saturated free fatty acid (FFA) known to induce inflammation and oxidative stress via TLR4 activation. While RNase L and RLI levels remained unchanged, OAS level was decreased in primary myotubes from insulin-resistant obese subjects (OB-IR) compared with myotubes from insulin-sensitive obese subjects (OB-IS). TLR3 and mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) were also underexpressed in OB-IR myotubes. Activation of RNase L by 2-5A transfection allowed to restore insulin response, OAS, MnSOD and TLR3 expression in OB-IR myotubes. Due to low expression of OAS, OB-IR myotubes present a defect in RNase L activation and TLR3 regulation. Consequently, MnSOD level is low and insulin sensitivity is reduced. These results support that RNase L activity limits FFA/obesity-induced impairment of insulin response in muscle cells via TLR3 and MnSOD expression.