Soil structure is an important aspect of agricultural soil quality, and its preservation and improvement are key to sustaining soil functions. Methods of overall soil quality assessment which include visual soil structure information can be useful tools for monitoring and managing the global soil resource. The aim of the paper is: (i) to demonstrate the role of visual quantification of soil structure within the procedure of the overall soil quality assessment by the Muencheberg Soil Quality Rating (M-SQR), (ii) to quantify the magnitude and variability of soil structure and overall M-SQR on a number of agricultural research sites and (iii) to analyse the correlations of soil quality rating results with crop yields. We analysed visual soil structure and overall soil quality on a range of 20 experimental sites in seven countries. To assess visual soil structure we utilised the Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) and Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) methods. Results showed the feasibility and reliability of both VSA and VESS methods and the overall soil quality M-SQR rating approach to give scores and classes which characterised the soil potential for cropping. The structure status of soil can be reliably assessed by these procedures. In soils with clay contents > 30% unfavourable soil structure could not be reliably recognised by measurements of the dry bulk density, but significantly by evaluation of visual soil structure. Structure scores were clearly associated with the drainage status of soil. More than 70% of the variability of crop yields at a given intensity of input may be explained by the overall M-SQR-score which includes information on soil texture, relief and climate in addition to soil structure. We conclude that methods of visual soil assessment are useful diagnostic tools for monitoring and controlling agricultural soil quality over different scales, ranging from within-fields to global. Controlling the drainage status of land and action of machinery at appropriate drainage states are pre-conditions for preserving a suitable soil structure.
Soil and Tillage Research, 2013, Vol 127, p. 74-84