The general Java runtime environment is resource hungry and unfriendly for real-time systems. To reduce the resource consumption of Java in embedded systems, direct hardware support of the language is a valuable option. Furthermore, an implementation of the Java virtual machine in hardware enables worst-case execution time analysis of Java programs. This chapter gives an overview of current approaches to hardware support for embedded and real-time Java.
Distributed, Embedded and Real-time Java Systems, 2012, p. 159-176