The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride concentrations over longer periods. The signal was seen to be stable, with regular drift in both laboratory and field test. In the field application, the sensor signal was corrected for drift, and errors were observed to be under 7% of that of conductivity measurements. The study also found that the chloride sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality.
Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, 2012, Vol 32, Issue 2, p. 40-47