The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and a key regulator of lipid homeostasis. Numerous fatty acids and eicosanoids serve as ligands and activators for PPARalpha. Here we demonstrate that S-hexadecyl-CoA, a nonhydrolyzable palmitoyl-CoA analog, antagonizes the effects of agonists on PPARalpha conformation and function in vitro. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, S-hexadecyl-CoA prevented agonist-induced binding of the PPARalpha-retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimer to the acyl-CoA oxidase peroxisome proliferator response element. PPARalpha bound specifically to immobilized palmitoyl-CoA and Wy14643, but not BRL49653, abolished binding. S-Hexadecyl-CoA increased in a dose-dependent and reversible manner the sensitivity of PPARalpha to chymotrypsin digestion, and the S-hexadecyl-CoA-induced sensitivity required a functional PPARalpha ligand-binding pocket. S-Hexadecyl-CoA prevented ligand-induced interaction between the co-activator SRC-1 and PPARalpha but increased recruitment of the nuclear receptor co-repressor NCoR. In cells, the concentration of free acyl-CoA esters is kept in the low nanomolar range due to the buffering effect of high affinity acyl-CoA-binding proteins, especially the acyl-CoA-binding protein. By using PPARalpha expressed in Sf21 cells for electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrate that S-hexadecyl-CoA was able to increase the mobility of the PPARalpha-containing heterodimer even in the presence of a molar excess of acyl-CoA-binding protein, mimicking the conditions found in vivo.
Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2001, Vol 276, Issue 24, p. 21410-6