Supply chains (SCs) can be managed at many levels. The use of tactical SC planning models with multiple flexibility options can help manage the usual operations efficiently and effectively, whilst improve the SC resiliency in response to inherent environmental uncertainties. This paper defines tactical SC flexibility and identifies tactical flexibility measures and options for development of flexible SC planning models. A classification of the existing literature of SC planning is introduced that highlights the characteristics of published flexibility inclusive models. Additional classifications from the reviewed literature are presented based on the integration of flexibility options used, solution methods utilized, and real world applications presented. These classifications are helpful for identifying research gaps in the current literature and provide insights for future modeling and research efforts in the field.
Annals of Operations Research, 2016, Vol 244, Issue 2, p. 407-427