This paper presents an analysis of phase noise in multiphase LC oscillators, and measurement results for several CMOS quadrature-voltage-controlled-oscillators (QVCOs) working in the 2-GHz frequency range. The phase noise data for a so-called BS-QVCO (- 140 dBc/Hz or less at 3 MHz frequency offset from the carrier, for a power consumption of 20.8 mW and a figure-of-merit of 184 dBc/Hz) show that phase noise performances are close to the previously derived limits. A systematic cause of departure from ideal quadrature between QVCO signals is also analyzed and measured experimentally, and a compact LC-tank layout that removes this source of phase error is proposed. A TS-QVCO designed with this technique shows a phase-noise figure-of-merit improvement of 4 dB, compared to a previous implementation. The measured equivalent phase error for all QVCOs is between 0.6degrees and 1degrees.
I E E E Journal of Solid State Circuits, 2004, Vol 39, Issue 11, p. 1883-1893
quadrature signal generation; RF; CMOS; phase noise; voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs)