The aim of the paper is to describe hydraulic stability of rock-armoured low-crested structures on the basis of new experimental tests and prototype observations. Rock armour stability results from earlier model tests under non-depth-limited long-crested head-on waves are reviewed. Results from new 2-D and 3-D model tests, carried out at Aalborg University, are presented. The tests were performed on detached low-crested breakwaters exposed to short-crested head-on and oblique waves, including depth-limited conditions. A formula that corresponds to initiation of hydraulic damage and allows determining armour stone size in shallow water conditions is given together with a rule of thumb for the required stone size in depth-limited design waves. Rock toe stability is discussed on the basis of prototype experience, hard bottom 2-D tests in depth-limited waves and an existing hydraulic stability formula. Toe damage predicted by the formula is in agreement with experimental results. In field sites, damage at the toe induced by scour or by sinking is observed and the volume of the berm is often insufficient to avoid regressive erosion of the armour layer. Stone sinking and settlement in selected sites, for which detailed information is available, are presented and discussed.
Coastal Engineering, 2006, Vol 53, Issue 4, p. 381-394
Rock armour; Stability; Low-crested; Breakwater; Damage; Scour; Trunk; Roundheads; Toe; Rock armour;