1 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, SDU2 Endocrinology, Department of Clinical Research, Det Sundhedsvidenskabelige Fakultet, SDU3 University of North Dakota, Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Therapeutics4 Syddansk Universitet5 Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Clinical Research, Det Sundhedsvidenskabelige Fakultet, SDU6 National Institutes of Health, Bethesda7 Medical University of Vienna8 University of North Dakota, Department of Chemistry9 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, SDU10 Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Clinical Research, Det Sundhedsvidenskabelige Fakultet, SDU
Because alpha-synuclein (Snca) has a role in brain lipid metabolism, we determined the impact that the loss of alpha-synuclein had on brain arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) metabolism in vivo using Snca-/- mice. We measured [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 incorporation and turnover kinetics in brain phospholipids using an established steady-state kinetic model. Liver was used as a negative control, and no changes were observed between groups. In Snca-/- brains, there was a marked reduction in 20:4n-6-CoA mass and in microsomal acyl-CoA synthetase (Acsl) activity toward 20:4n-6. Microsomal Acsl activity was completely restored after the addition of exogenous wild-type mouse or human alpha-synuclein, but not by A30P, E46K, and A53T forms of alpha-synuclein. Acsl and acyl-CoA hydrolase expression was not different between groups. The incorporation and turnover of 20:4n-6 into brain phospholipid pools were markedly reduced. The dilution coefficient lambda, which indicates 20:4n-6 recycling between the acyl-CoA pool and brain phospholipids, was increased 3.3-fold, indicating more 20:4n-6 was entering the 20:4n-6-CoA pool from the plasma relative to that being recycled from the phospholipids. This is consistent with the reduction in Acsl activity observed in the Snca-/- mice. Using titration microcalorimetry, we determined that alpha-synuclein bound free 20:4n-6 (Kd = 3.7 microM) but did not bind 20:4n-6-CoA. These data suggest alpha-synuclein is involved in substrate presentation to Acsl rather than product removal. In summary, our data demonstrate that alpha-synuclein has a major role in brain 20:4n-6 metabolism through its modulation of endoplasmic reticulum-localized acyl-CoA synthetase activity, although mutant forms of alpha-synuclein fail to restore this activity.
Biochemistry, 2006, Vol 45, Issue 22, p. 6956-6966