Jacobsen, Rune Shim1; Andersen, Karin Nordström7; Borel, Peter Ingo1; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob1; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn1; Hansen, Ole8; Kristensen, Martin2; Lavrinenko, Andrei1; Moulin, Gaid9; Ou, Haiyan1; Peucheret, Christophe4; Zsigri, Beata1; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard10
1 Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark2 Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark3 Fibers & Nonlinear Optics, Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark4 Systems, Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark5 Center for Nanoteknologi, Center, Technical University of Denmark6 Center for Individual Nanoparticle Functionality, Center, Technical University of Denmark7 Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark8 Experimental Surface and Nanomaterials Physics, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark9 unknown10 Rector’s office, Administration, Technical University of Denmark
For decades, silicon has been the material of choice for mass fabrication of electronics. This is in contrast to photonics, where passive optical components in silicon have only recently been realized1, 2. The slow progress within silicon optoelectronics, where electronic and optical functionalities can be integrated into monolithic components based on the versatile silicon platform, is due to the limited active optical properties of silicon3. Recently, however, a continuous-wave Raman silicon laser was demonstrated4; if an effective modulator could also be realized in silicon, data processing and transmission could potentially be performed by all-silicon electronic and optical components. Here we have discovered that a significant linear electro-optic effect is induced in silicon by breaking the crystal symmetry. The symmetry is broken by depositing a straining layer on top of a silicon waveguide, and the induced nonlinear coefficient, (2) 15 pm V-1, makes it possible to realize a silicon electro-optic modulator. The strain-induced linear electro-optic effect may be used to remove a bottleneck5 in modern computers by replacing the electronic bus with a much faster optical alternative.