Degradation mechanisms of a photovoltaic device with an Al/C-60/C-12-PSV/PEDOT:PSS/ITO/glass geometry was studied using a combination of in-plane physical and chemical analysis techniques: TOF-SIMS, AFM, SEM, interference microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. A comparison was made between a device being stored in darkness in air and a device that had been subjected to illumination under simulated sunlight (1000 Wm(-2), AM1.5) in air. It was found that oxygen diffuses through pinholes in the aluminium electrode. If stored in air in the dark the oxidation is limited to the C-60 layer. Illumination accelerates the oxidation/degradation and thus expands the process to involve at least the underlying layer Of C-12-PSV. Furthermore, it was found that particles are formed in the device during storage. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2006, Vol 90, Issue 17, p. 2793-2814