1 Department of Bioscience - Arctic Research Centre, Department of Bioscience, Science and Technology, Aarhus University2 Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen3 GEUS-Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland4 Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland5 Greenland Climate Research Centre6 Asiaq - Greenland Survey7 University of Iceland8 Department of Bioscience - Arctic Research Centre, Department of Bioscience, Science and Technology, Aarhus University
Freshwater runoff to fjords with marine-terminating glaciers along the Greenland Ice Sheet margin has an impact on fjord circulation and potentially ice sheet mass balance through increasing heat transport to the glacier front. Here, the authors use the high-resolution (5.5 km) HIRHAM5 regional climate model, allowing high detail in topography and surface types, to estimate freshwater input to Godthåbsfjord in southwest Greenland. Model output is compared to hydrometeorological observations and, while simulated daily variability in temperature and downwelling radiation shows high correlation with observations (typically .0.9), there are biases that impact the results. In particular, overestimated albedo leads to underestimation of melt and runoff at low elevations. In the model simulation (1991–2012), the ice sheet experiences increasing energy input from the surface turbulent heat flux (up to elevations of 2000m) and shortwave radiation (at all elevations). Southerly wind anomalies and declining cloudiness due to an increase in atmospheric pressure over north Greenland contribute to increased summer melt. This results in declining surface mass balance (SMB), increasing surface runoff, and upward shift of the equilibrium line altitude. SMB is reconstructed back to 1890 though regression between simulated SMB and observed temperature and precipitation, with added uncertainty in the period 1890–1952 because of possible inhomogeneity in the precipitation record. SMB as low as in recent years appears to have occurred before, most notably around 1930, 1950, and 1960. While previous low SMBs were mainly caused by low accumulation, those around 1930 and in the 2000s are mainly due to warming.