Roth, Bérenger1; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis1; Corazza, Michael1; Søndergaard, Roar R.1; Gevorgyan, Suren1; Jørgensen, Mikkel1; Krebs, Frederik C1
1 Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark2 Functional organic materials, Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark
The impact of additives mixed with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on the stability of organic photovoltaic modules is investigated for fully ambient roll-to-roll (R2R) processed indium tin oxide free modules. Four different PEDOT:PSS inks from two different suppliers are used. The modules are manufactured directly on barrier foil without a UV filter to accelerate degradation and enable completion of the study in a reasonable time span. The modules are subjected to stability testing following well-established protocols developed by the international summit on organic photovoltaic stability (ISOS). For the harsh indoor test (ISOS-L-3) only a slight difference in stability is observed between the different modules. During both ISOS-L-3 and ISOS-D-3 one new failure mode is observed as a result of tiny air inclusions in the barrier foil and a R2R method is developed to detect and quantify these. During outdoor operation (ISOS-O-1) the use of ethylene glycol (EG) as an additive is found to drastically increase the operational stability of the modules as compared to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and a new failure mode specific to modules with DMSO as the additive is identified. The data are extended in an ongoing experiment where DMSO is used as additive for long-term outdoor testing in a solar park.