1 Hjerteafdeling Y, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, The Capital Region of Denmark2 Endokrinologisk Afdeling I, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, The Capital Region of Denmark3 Cardiology, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, The Capital Region of Denmark4 Hjertemedicinsk Klinik, Hjertecentret Rigshospitalet, Rigshospitalet, The Capital Region of Denmark5 Hæmatologisk Klinik, Finsencentret, Rigshospitalet, The Capital Region of Denmark
BACKGROUND: Impaired coronary microcirculation is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the absence of stenosis of major coronary arteries, coronary flow reserve (CFR) reflects coronary microcirculation. Studies have shown beneficial effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on the cardiovascular system. The aim of the study was to explore the short-term effect of GLP-1 treatment on coronary microcirculation estimated by CFR in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes and no history of coronary artery disease were treated with either the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide or received no treatment for 10 weeks, in a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over setup with a 2 weeks wash-out period. The effect of liraglutide on coronary microcirculation was evaluated using non-invasive trans-thoracic Doppler-flow echocardiography during dipyridamole induced stress. Peripheral microvascular endothelial function was assessed by Endo-PAT2000®. Interventions were compared by two-sample t-test after ensuring no carry over effect. RESULTS: A total of 24 patients were included. Twenty patients completed the study (15 male; mean age 57 ± 9; mean BMI 33.1 ± 4.4, mean baseline CFR 2.35 ± 0.45). There was a small increase in CFR following liraglutide treatment (change 0.18, CI95% [-0.01; 0.36], p = 0.06) but no difference in effect in comparison with no treatment (difference between treatment allocation 0.16, CI95% [-0.08; 0.40], p = 0.18). Liraglutide significantly reduced glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (-10.1 mmol/mol CI95% [-13.9; -6.4], p = 0.01), systolic blood pressure (-10 mmHg CI95% [-17; -3], p = 0.01) and weight (-1.9 kg CI95% [-3.6; -0.2], p = 0.03) compared to no treatment. There was no effect on peripheral microvascular endothelial function after either intervention. CONCLUSIONS: In this short-term treatment study, 10 weeks of liraglutide treatment had no significant effect on neither coronary nor peripheral microvascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Further long-term studies, preferably in patients with more impaired microvascular function and using a higher dosage of GLP-1 analogues, are needed to confirm these findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01931982 .