Bao, Wei2; Yeung, Edwina2; Tobias, Deirdre K2; Hu, Frank B2; Vaag, Allan A4; Chavarro, Jorge E2; Mills, James L2; Grunnet, Louise G2; Bowers, Katherine2; Ley, Sylvia H2; Kiely, Michele2; Olsen, Sjurdur F.2; Zhang, Cuilin2
1 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 unknown3 Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet4 Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
a prospective cohort study
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are advised to control their weight after pregnancy. We aimed to examine how adiposity and weight change influence the long-term risk of developing type 2 diabetes after GDM. METHODS: We included 1,695 women who had incident GDM between 1991 and 2001, as part of the Diabetes & Women's Health study, and followed them until the return of the 2009 questionnaire. Body weight and incident type 2 diabetic cases were reported biennially. We defined baseline as the questionnaire period when women reported an incident GDM pregnancy. We estimated HRs and 95% CIs using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: We documented 259 incident cases of type 2 diabetes during up to 18 years of follow-up. The adjusted HRs of type 2 diabetes associated with each 1 kg/m(2) increase in BMI were 1.16 (95% CI 1.12, 1.19) for baseline BMI and 1.16 (95% CI 1.13, 1.20) for most recent BMI. Moreover, each 5 kg increment of weight gain after GDM development was associated with a 27% higher risk of type 2 diabetes (adjusted HR 1.27; 95% CI 1.04, 1.54). Jointly, women who had a BMI ≥30.0 kg/m(2) at baseline and gained ≥5 kg after GDM had an adjusted HR of 43.19 (95% CI 13.60, 137.11), compared with women who had a BMI <25.0 kg/m(2) at baseline and gained <5 kg after GDM. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Baseline BMI, most recent BMI and weight gain after GDM were significantly and positively associated with risk of progression from GDM to type 2 diabetes.
Diabetologia, 2015, Vol 58, Issue 6, p. 1212-9
Adiposity; Adult; Body Mass Index; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Diabetes, Gestational; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Middle Aged; Multivariate Analysis; Obesity; Pregnancy; Proportional Hazards Models; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Surveys and Questionnaires; Weight Gain