1 Geology, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet2 Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research Kiel (GEOMAR)3 Geology, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet
Controlled source seismic investigation of crustal structure below ice covers is an emerging technique. We have recently conducted an explosive refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiment on the ice cap in east-central Greenland. The data-quality is high for all shot points and a full crustal model can be modelled. A crucial challenge for applying the technique is to control the sources. Here, we present data that describe the efficiency of explosive sources in the ice cover. Analysis of the data shows, that the ice cap traps a significant amount of energy, which is observed as a strong ice wave. The ice cap leads to low transmission of energy into the crust such that charges need be larger than in conventional onshore experiments to obtain reliable seismic signals. The strong reflection coefficient at the base of the ice generates strong multiples which may mask for secondary phases. This effect may be crucial for acquisition of reflection seismic profiles on ice caps. Our experience shows that it is essential to use optimum depth for the charges and to seal the boreholes carefully.
Polar Science, 2015, Vol 9, Issue 1, p. 107-118
Active sources; Greenland; Seismics on ice; Seismology