Pathogenic germline mutations in the BRCA1 gene predispose carriers to early onset breast and ovarian cancer. Clinical genetic screening of BRCA1 often reveals variants with uncertain clinical significance, complicating patient and family management. Therefore, functional examinations are urgently needed to classify whether these uncertain variants are pathogenic or benign. In this study, we investigated 14 BRCA1 variants by in silico splicing analysis and mini-gene splicing assay. All 14 alterations were missense variants located within the BRCT domain of BRCA1 and had previously been examined by functional analysis at the protein level. Results from a validated mini-gene splicing assay indicated that nine BRCA1 variants resulted in splicing aberrations leading to truncated transcripts and thus can be considered pathogenic (c.4987A>T/p.Met1663Leu, c.4988T>A/p.Met1663Lys, c.5072C>T/p.Thr1691Ile, c.5074G>C/p.Asp1692His, c.5074G>A/p.Asp1692Asn, c.5074G>T/p.Asp1692Tyr, c.5332G>A/p.Asp1778Asn, c.5332G>T/p.Asp1778Tyr, and c.5408G>C/p.Gly1803Ala), whereas five BRCA1 variants had no effect on splicing (c.4985T>C/p.Phe1662Ser, c.5072C>A/p.Thr1691Lys, c.5153G>C/p.Trp1718Ser, c.5154G>T/p.Trp1718Cys, and c.5333A>G/p.Asp1778Gly). Eight of the variants having an effect on splicing (c.4987A>T/p.Met1663Leu, c.4988T>A/p.Met1663Lys, c.5074G>C/p.Asp1692His, c.5074G>A/p.Asp1692Asn, c.5074G>T/p.Asp1692Tyr, c.5332G>A/p.Asp1778Asn, c.5332G>T/p.Asp1778Tyr, and c.5408G>C/p.Gly1803Ala) were previously determined to have no or an uncertain effect on the protein level, whereas one variant (c.5072C>T/p.Thr1691Ile) were shown to have a strong effect on the protein level as well. In conclusion, our study emphasizes that in silico splicing prediction and mini-gene splicing analysis are important for the classification of BRCA1 missense variants located close to exon/intron boundaries.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 2015, Vol 150, Issue 2, p. 289-98
BRCA1 Protein; Base Sequence; Breast Neoplasms; DNA Mutational Analysis; Female; Genetic Association Studies; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Genetic Testing; Germ-Line Mutation; Humans; Mutation, Missense; RNA Splicing; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't