Da Roit, F.2; Engelberts, P. J.2; Taylor, R. P.2; Breij, E. C.2; Gritti, G.2; Rambaldi, A.2; Introna, M.2; Parren, P. W.3; Beurskens, F. J.2; Golay, J.2
1 Ditzel group, Department of Molecular Medicine, Det Sundhedsvidenskabelige Fakultet, SDU2 unknown3 Ditzel group, Department of Molecular Medicine, Det Sundhedsvidenskabelige Fakultet, SDU
The novel Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib and phosphatidyl-4-5-biphosphate 3-kinase-delta inhibitor idelalisib are promising drugs for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, either alone or in combination with anti-CD20 antibodies. We investigated the possible positive or negative impact of these drugs on all known mechanisms of action of both type I and type II anti-CD20 antibodies. Pretreatment with ibrutinib for 1 hour did not increase direct cell death of cell lines or chronic lymphocytic leukemia samples mediated by anti-CD20 antibodies. Pre-treatment with ibrutinib did not inhibit complement activation or complement-mediated lysis. In contrast, ibrutinib strongly inhibited all cell-mediated mechanisms induced by anti-CD20 antibodies rituximab, ofatumumab or obinutuzumab, either in purified systems or whole blood assays. Activation of natural killer cells, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by these cells, as well as phagocytosis by macrophages or neutrophils were inhibited by ibrutinib with a half maximal effective concentration of 0.3-3 muM. Analysis of anti-CD20 mediated activation of natural killer cells isolated from patients on continued oral ibrutinib treatment suggested that repeated drug dosing inhibits these cells in vivo. Finally we show that the phosphatidyl-4-5-biphosphate 3-kinase-delta inhibitor idelalisib similarly inhibited the immune cell-mediated mechanisms induced by anti-CD20 antibodies, although the effects of this drug at 10 muM were weaker than those observed with ibrutinib at the same concentration. We conclude that the design of combined treatment schedules of anti-CD20 antibodies with these kinase inhibitors should consider the multiple negative interactions between these two classes of drugs.