Moving towards a carbon free energy system has become an objective for many countries nowadays. Among other changes, the electrification of strategic sectors such as heating and transportation is inevitable. As a consequence, the current power system load will substantially increase. In this context, the nature of the expected loads (heat pumps, plug-in electric vehicles, etc.) makes the low voltage networks specially targeted. A promising solution to overcome the challenges resulting from their grid integration, is demand response. This paper introduces a hierarchical structure for controlling the demand response of a low voltage grid. This is designed to; i) maximize the grid utilization, thereby reducing the need for reinforcement, ii) accommodate the maximum number of flexible loads and iii) satisfy the power and comfort requirements from each of the consumers in the network. The validation of the proposed concept is made using a model of a low voltage network currently operative in Denmark. The results show that by using the proposed strategy a considerable improvement of the minimum system voltage and a better load distribution is obtained.
I E E E Transactions on Smart Grid, 2015, Vol 6, Issue 2, p. 705-715
Demand response; Low voltage networks; Hierarchical control; Heat pump; Plug-in electric vehicles