1 Natural History Museum of Denmark, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet2 Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden.3 Archaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University4 Osteolarchaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University5 Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping University6 Natural History Museum of Denmark, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet
The European Neolithization process started around 12 000 years ago in the Near East. The introduction of agriculture spread north and west throughout Europe and a key question has been if this was brought about by migrating individuals, by an exchange of ideas or a by a mixture of these. The earliest farming evidence in Scandinavia is found within the Funnel Beaker Culture complex (Trichterbecherkultur, TRB) which represents the northernmost extension of Neolithic farmers in Europe. The TRB coexisted for almost a millennium with hunter–gatherers of the Pitted Ware Cultural complex (PWC). If migration was a substantial part of the Neolithization, even the northerly TRB community would display a closer genetic affinity to other farmer populations than to hunter–gatherer populations. We deep-sequenced the mitochondrial hypervariable region 1 from seven farmers (six TRB and one Battle Axe complex, BAC) and 13 hunter–gatherers (PWC) and authenticated the sequences using postmortem DNA damage patterns. A comparison with 124 previously published sequences from prehistoric Europe shows that the TRB individuals share a close affinity to Central European farmer populations, and that they are distinct from hunter–gatherer groups, including the geographically close and partially contemporary PWC that show a close affinity to the European Mesolithic hunter–gatherers.
Royal Society of London. Philosophical Transactions B. Biological Sciences, 2015, Vol 370
Ancient DNA; Battle Axe culture; Funnel Beaker Culture; mtDNA; Neolithic; Pitted ware culture