Fortification with the essential trace element iodine is widespread worldwide. In the present study, results on iodine excretion and intake of iodine-rich foods from a cross-sectional study carried out in 2004-5, 4 to 5 years after the implementation of mandatory iodine fortification, were compared with data in a study carried out in 2008-10. The 2008-10 study was a follow-up of a cross-sectional study carried out before iodine fortification was implemented. Participants in the cross-sectional studies were randomly selected. Both studies were carried out in the cities of Aalborg and Copenhagen in Denmark. The median urinary iodine concentration decreased in women from 97 μg/l (n 2862) to 78 μg/l (n 2041) (P<0·001). The decrease persisted after adjustment for age, city and education, and if expressed as estimated 24 h iodine excretion. The prevalence of users of iodine containing dietary supplements increased from 29·4 to 37·3 % (P<0·001). The total fluid intake increased in women (P<0·001), but the intake of other iodine-rich foods did not change. The median urinary iodine concentration did not change in men (114 μg/l (n 708) and 107 μg/l (n 424), respectively), while the total fluid intake decreased (P= 0·001). Iodine content was measured in milk sampled in 2000-1 and in 2013. The iodine content was lower in 2013 (12 (sd 3) μg/100 g) compared with that in 2000-1 (16 (sd 6) μg/100 g) (P<0·001). In conclusion, iodine excretion in women has decreased below the recommended level. The reason might probably, at least partly, be a decreased content of iodine in milk.
British Journal of Nutrition, 2014, Vol 112, Issue 12, p. 1993-2001
Adult; Aged; Animals; Cross-Sectional Studies; Denmark; Diet; Dietary Supplements; Energy Intake; Female; Food, Fortified; Humans; Iodine; Male; Middle Aged; Milk; Sex Factors; Fortification; Nutrient intake; Iodine content in milk; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't