Buron, Jonas Christian Due5; Pizzocchero, Filippo1; Jessen, Bjarke Sørensen7; Booth, Tim7; Nielsen, Peter F.8; Hansen, Ole3; Hilke, Michael10; Whiteway, Eric10; Jepsen, Peter Uhd7; Bøggild, Peter7; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth1
1 Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark2 Nanointegration, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark3 Experimental Surface and Nanomaterials Physics, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark4 Silicon Microtechnology, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark5 Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark6 Teraherts Technologies and Biophotonics, Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark7 Center for Nanostructured Graphene, Center, Technical University of Denmark8 Capres A/S9 McGill University10 McGill University
The electrical performance of graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to insulating surfaces may be compromised by extended defects, including for instance grain boundaries, cracks, wrinkles, and tears. In this study, we experimentally investigate and compare the nano- and microscale electrical continuity of single layer graphene grown on centimeter-sized single crystal copper with that of previously studied graphene films, grown on commercially available copper foil, after transfer to SiO2 surfaces. The electrical continuity of the graphene films is analyzed using two noninvasive conductance characterization methods: ultrabroadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and micro four-point probe, which probe the electrical properties of the graphene film on different length scales, 100 nm and 10 μm, respectively. Ultrabroadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy allows for measurement of the complex conductance response in the frequency range 1-15 terahertz, covering the entire intraband conductance spectrum, and reveals that the conductance response for the graphene grown on single crystalline copper intimately follows the Drude model for a barrier-free conductor. In contrast, the graphene grown on commercial copper foil shows a distinctly non-Drude conductance spectrum that is better described by the Drude-Smith model, which incorporates the effect of preferential carrier backscattering associated with extended, electronic barriers with a typical separation on the order of 100 nm. Micro four-point probe resistance values measured on graphene grown on single crystalline copper in two different voltage-current configurations show close agreement with the expected distributions for a continuous 2D conductor, in contrast with previous observations on graphene grown on commercial copper foil. The terahertz and micro four-point probe conductance values of the graphene grown on single crystalline copper shows a close to unity correlation, in contrast with those of the graphene grown on commercial copper foil, which we explain by the absence of extended defects on the microscale in CVD graphene grown on single crystalline copper. The presented results demonstrate that the graphene grown on single crystal copper is electrically continuous on the nanoscopic, microscopic, as well as intermediate length scales.
Nano Letters, 2014, Vol 14, Issue 11, p. 6348-6355