1 Geography, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet2 University of Edinburgh3 Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald4 Wageningen University and Research Centre5 University of Vermont6 University of Bonn7 University of Victoria8 University of Alaska Fairbanks9 Texas A & M University10 WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF11 Adam Mickiewicz University12 National Museum of Denmark13 University of Oxford14 University of Lapland15 Universite du Quebec a Montreal16 Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald17 University of Edinburgh18 Geography, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet19 University of Vermont20 University of Alaska Fairbanks21 University of Lapland22 Universite du Quebec a Montreal
Shrubs have increased in abundance and dominance in arctic and alpine regions in recent decades. This often dramatic change, likely due to climate warming, has the potential to alter both the structure and function of tundra ecosystems. The analysis of shrub growth is improving our understanding of tundra vegetation dynamics and environmental changes. However, dendrochronological methods developed for trees, need to be adapted for the morphology and growth eccentricity of shrubs. Here, we review current and developing methods to measure radial and axial growth, estimate age, and assess growth dynamics in relation to environmental variables. Recent advances in sampling methods, analysis and applications have improved our ability to investigate growth and recruitment dynamics of shrubs. However, to extrapolate findings to the biome scale, future dendroecologicalwork will require improved approaches that better address variation in growth within parts of the plant, among individuals within populations and between species.