1 Geography, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet2 University of Edinburgh3 Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald4 Geology, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet5 Wageningen University and Research Centre6 University of Vermont7 University of Bonn8 University of Victoria9 University of Alaska Fairbanks10 Texas A & M University11 WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF12 Adam Mickiewicz University13 National Museum of Denmark14 University of Oxford15 University of Lapland16 Universite du Quebec a Montreal17 Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald18 University of Edinburgh19 Geology, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet20 University of Vermont21 University of Alaska Fairbanks22 University of Lapland23 Universite du Quebec a Montreal
Shrubs have increased in abundance and dominance in arctic and alpine regions in recent decades. This often dramatic change, likely due to climate warming, has the potential to alter both the structure and function of tundra ecosystems. The analysis of shrub growth is improving our understanding of tundra vegetation dynamics and environmental changes. However, dendrochronological methods developed for trees, need to be adapted for the morphology and growth eccentricity of shrubs. Here, we review current and developing methods to measure radial and axial growth, estimate age, and assess growth dynamics in relation to environmental variables. Recent advances in sampling methods, analysis and applications have improved our ability to investigate growth and recruitment dynamics of shrubs. However, to extrapolate findings to the biome scale, future dendroecologicalwork will require improved approaches that better address variation in growth within parts of the plant, among individuals within populations and between species.