Crowe, Sean Andrew3; Paris, Guillaume4; Katsev, Sergei5; Jones, CarriAyne3; Kim, Sang-Tae6; Zerkle, Aubrey L.7; Nomosatryo, Sulung8; Fowle, David A.9; Adkins, Jess F.4; Sessions, Alex L.4; Farquhar, James10; Canfield, Donald Eugene11
1 Nordic Center for Earth Evolution (NordCEE), Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, SDU2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, SDU3 Dept Microbiology and Immunology, and Dept Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Uni British Columbia, Vancouver4 CALTECH, Dept Geol & Planetary Sci, Pasadena, CA 911255 Univ Minnesota, Large Lakes Observ, Minneapolis, MN 558126 McMaster Univ, Sch Geog & Earth Sci, Hamilton, ON7 Univ St Andrews, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, St Andrews, Fife, Scotland8 Indonesian Inst Sci, Limnol Res Ctr, Cibinong, West Java9 Univ Kansas, Dept Geol, Lawrence, KS 6604510 Univ Maryland, Dept Geol, College Pk, MD 2074211 Nordic Center for Earth Evolution (NordCEE), Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, SDU
In the low-oxygen Archean world (>2400 million years ago), seawater sulfate concentrations were much lower than today, yet open questions frustrate the translation of modern measurements of sulfur isotope fractionations into estimates of Archean seawater sulfate concentrations. In the water column of Lake Matano, Indonesia, a low-sulfate analog for the Archean ocean, we find large (>20 per mil) sulfur isotope fractionations between sulfate and sulfide, but the underlying sediment sulfides preserve a muted range of delta S-34 values. Using models informed by sulfur cycling in Lake Matano, we infer Archean seawater sulfate concentrations of less than 2.5 micromolar. At these low concentrations, marine sulfate residence times were likely 10(3) to 10(4) years, and sulfate scarcity would have shaped early global biogeochemical cycles, possibly restricting biological productivity in Archean oceans.