This study explores the techno-economic potential of rice residues as a bioenergy resource to meet Ghana’s energy demands. Major rice growing regions of Ghana have 70–90% of residues available for bioenergy production. To ensure cost-effective biomass logistics, a thorough cost analysis was made for two bioenergy routes. Logistics costs for a 5MWe straw combustion plant were 39.01, 47.52 and 47.89USD/t for Northern, Ashanti and Volta regions respectively. Logistics cost for a 0.25MWe husk gasification plant (with roundtrip distance 10km) was 2.64USD/t in all regions. Capital cost (66–72%) contributes significantly to total logistics costs of straw, however for husk logistics, staff (40%) and operation and maintenance costs (46%) dominate. Baling is the major processing logistic cost for straw, contributing to 46–48% of total costs. Scale of straw unit does not have a large impact on logistic costs. Transport distance of husks has considerable impact on logistic costs.