Introduction Preoperative anxiety is common in young children and associated with adverse outcomes after sur-gery. The modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (m-YPAS) has been developed to assess pre-operative anxiety in children. The purpose of this study was to translate and adapt the m-YPAS to Danish cultural and linguistic conditions and to test face validity and inter-reliability in a clinical setting. Materials and methods The translation was performed in accordance with WHO guidelines. Face validity as well as linguistic difficulties of the Danish version was tested and solved in a focus group interview with five nurse anesthetists. Reliability for the subscales in m-YPAS was determined by using weighted K statistics whereas agreement on the overall weighted scores was calculated using Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results The focus group perceived the Danish version of the m-YPAS as suitable and relevant, i.e. the face validity satisfactory. Inter-rater reliability analysis revealed that inter-observer agreement at induction 1 were good to very good (kw: 0.63–0.98) and at induction 2, the agreement was good to very good (kw: 0.72–0.96). ICC for the overall weighted anxiety score was in: induction 1:0.92 and induction 2: 0.92 Conclusion Standardized and validated assessment tools are needed to evaluate interventions aiming to reduce preoperative anxiety in children. The Danish m-YPAS had a satisfactory face validity and inter-reliability, based on a minor empirical material for the validation process. However, development of systematic training of future raters is necessary and further validation of the Danish version of m-YPAS is called for.
Ugeskrift for Laeger, 2014
m-YPAS, preoperative anxiety, preschool children, assessment, validation, surgery