The importance of iodine supplement intake and time of sampling
Objectives: Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is the recommended method to evaluate iodine status in pregnancy, but several factors may challenge the interpretation of the results. We evaluated UIC in pregnant women according to (1) sampling in the hospital versus at home, (2) time of the most recent iodine supplement intake prior to sampling, and (3) members of their household. Study Design: Danish crosssectional study in the year 2012. Pregnant women (n = 158), their male partners (n = 157) and children (n = 51) provided a questionnaire with detailed information on iodine supplement intake and a spot urine sample obtained in the hospital and/or at home for measurement of UIC and urinary creatinine concentration. Results: In the pregnant women providing a urine sample both in the hospital and at home (n = 66), individual UIC (p = 0.002) and urinary creatinine concentration (p = 0.042), but not estimated 24-hour urinary iodine excretion (p = 0.79), were higher when sampling was at home. Median UIC was dependent on the time of the most recent iodine supplement intake prior to sampling [same day (n = 79): 150 μg/l (95% CI 131-181 μg/l), the day before (n = 51): 105 μg/l (78-131 μg/l), several days ago/non-user (n = 28): 70 μg/l (56-94 μg/l), p < 0.001]. The pattern was similar in the male partners. Apart from a more frequent iodine supplement intake in pregnancy (87.3% vs. partners 15.9%), no systematic differences were observed in urinary measurements between the pregnant women and their partners. Conclusions: Time of spot urine sampling and time span from iodine supplement intake to spot urine sampling should be considered when evaluating urinary iodine status in pregnancy.
European Thyroid Journal, 2014, Vol 3, Issue 3, p. 179-188