Secher, Anna L2; Parellada, Clara B2; Ringholm, Lene2; Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg2; Damm, Peter3; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R3
1 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 unknown3 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the association between gestational weight gain and offspring birth weight in singleton term pregnancies of women with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred fifteen consecutive women referred at <14 weeks were retrospectively classified as underweight (prepregnancy BMI <18.5 kg/m(2); n = 1), normal weight (18.5-24.9; n = 65), overweight (25.0-29.9; n = 39), or obese (≥30.0; n = 10). Gestational weight gain was categorized as excessive, appropriate, or insufficient according to the Institute of Medicine recommendations for each BMI class. Women with nephropathy, preeclampsia, and/or preterm delivery were excluded because of restrictive impact on fetal growth and limited time for total weight gain. RESULTS: HbA1c was comparable at ∼6.6% (49 mmol/mol) at 8 weeks and ∼6.0% (42 mmol/mol) at 36 weeks between women with excessive (n = 62), appropriate (n = 37), and insufficient (n = 16) gestational weight gain. Diabetes duration was comparable, and median prepregnancy BMI was 25.3 (range 18-41) vs. 23.5 (18-31) vs. 22.7 (20-30) kg/m(2) (P = 0.05) in the three weight gain groups. Offspring birth weight and birth weight SD score decreased across the groups (3,681 [2,374-4,500] vs. 3,395 [2,910-4,322] vs. 3,295 [2,766-4,340] g [P = 0.02] and 1.08 [-1.90 to 3.25] vs. 0.45 [-0.83 to 3.18] vs. -0.02 [-1.51 to 2.96] [P = 0.009], respectively). In a multiple linear regression analysis, gestational weight gain (kg) was positively associated with offspring birth weight (g) (β = 19; P = 0.02) and birth weight SD score (β = 0.06; P = 0.008) when adjusted for prepregnancy BMI, HbA1c at 36 weeks, smoking, parity, and ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Higher gestational weight gain in women with type 1 diabetes was associated with increasing offspring birth weight independent of glycemic control and prepregnancy BMI.
Diabetes Care, 2014, Vol 37, Issue 10, p. 2677-2684