Various metrics exist for energy security assessment along with a diffuse array of different strategies for improving national performance. These independent and interacted metrics overlap, however, and are rarely considered systematically. The objective of this study is to translate often subjective concepts of energy security into more objective criteria, to investigate the cause-effect relationships among these different metrics, and to provide some recommendations for the stakeholders to draft efficacious measures for enhancing energy security. To accomplish this feat, the study utilizes a DEMATEL (Fuzzy Decision-making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory) methodology to analyze collected data, reveal cause-effect relationships, and prioritize energy security strategies. To apply our theoretical results in practice, we include a brief case study of China. We conclude that the availability and affordability dimensions of energy security are most impactful to a nation's overall energy security, and that the promotion of renewable energy and diversification are compelling national energy security strategies, both for China and other countries.