1 Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark2 Natural Product Chemistry, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark3 CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre4 National Academy of Agricultural Science5 Charles University6 Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital7 The Institute of Sciences of Food Production8 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada9 University of Szeged10 Chiba University11 Fungal Chemodiversity, Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark12 Charles University13 Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital14 University of Szeged15 Chiba University
Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker.