1 Department of Clinical Medicine, Health, Aarhus University2 Department of Clinical Medicine - Department of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical Medicine, Health, Aarhus University3 Department of Clinical Medicine - Klinisk Mikrobiologisk afdeling, SKS, Department of Clinical Medicine, Health, Aarhus University4 Københavns Universitet5 Gothenburg CF Center, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.6 Clinical Microbiology Laboratories, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.7 University of Liverpool, Department of Public Health and Policy8 Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.9 Gothenburg CF Center, Department of Pediatrics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.10 Skåne University Hospital, Lund11 Uppsala CF center, KBH, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.12 Department of Pediatrics, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Denmark.13 Norwegian Resource Centre for Cystic Fibrosis, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.14 Copenhagen CF Center, Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Denmark.15 Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital16 Department of Clinical Medicine, Health, Aarhus University17 Department of Clinical Medicine - Klinisk Mikrobiologisk afdeling, SKS, Department of Clinical Medicine, Health, Aarhus University
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an emerging threat to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients but their epidemiology is not well described. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study we identified all Scandinavian CF patients with a positive NTM culture from airway secretions from 2000 to the end of 2012 and used national CF databases to describe microbiological and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: During the 13-year period 157 (11%) CF patients were culture positive for NTM at least once. Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC) (45%) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (32%) were the predominant species with geographical differences in distribution. Younger patients were more prone to MABSC (p<0.01). Despite treatment, less than one-third of MABSC patients with repeated positive cultures cleared their infection and a quarter had a lung transplant or died. CONCLUSION: NTM are significant CF pathogens and are becoming more prevalent in Scandinavia. MABSC and MAC appear to target distinct patient groups. Having multiple positive cultures despite treatment conveys a poor outcome.
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, 2015, Vol 14, Issue 1, p. 46-52