Raghavan, Maanasa5; DeGiorgio, Michael33; Albrechtsen, Anders5; Moltke, Ida5; Skoglund, Pontus7; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.5; Grønnow, Bjarne8; Appelt, Martin8; Gulløv, Hans Christian8; Friesen, T. Max34; Fitzhugh, William10; Malmström, Helena11; Rasmussen, Simon2; Olsen, Jesper12; Melchior, Linea5; Fuller, Benjamin T.13; Fahrni, Simon M.13; Stafford, Thomas12; Grimes, Vaughan14; Renouf, M. A. Priscilla35; Cybulski, Jerome16; Lynnerup, Niels5; Lahr, Marta Mirazon36; Britton, Kate18; Knecht, Rick18; Arneborg, Jette8; Metspalu, Mait37; Cornejo, Omar E.20; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo5; Wang, Yong21; Rasmussen, Morten5; Raghavan, Vibha38; Hansen, Thomas V. O.5; Khusnutdinova, Elza39; Pierre, Tracey5; Dneprovsky, Kirill24; Andreasen, Claus25; Lange, Hans25; Hayes, M. Geoffrey40; Coltrain, Joan41; Spitsyn, Victor A.42; Gotherstrom, Anders43; Orlando, Ludovic5; Kivisild, Toomas36; Villems, Richard37; Crawford, Michael H.44; Nielsen, Finn C.5; Dissing, Jørgen5; Heinemeier, Jan12; Meldgaard, Morten5; Bustamante, Carlos45; O'Rourke, Dennis H.41; Jakobsson, Mattias11; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.5; Nielsen, Rasmus46; Willerslev, Eske5
1 Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark2 Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark3 Behavioral Phenomics, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark4 Metagenomics, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark5 University of Copenhagen6 Pennsylvania State University7 Harvard Medical School8 National Museum of Denmark9 University of Toronto10 National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution11 Uppsala University12 Aarhus University13 University of California, Irvine14 Max Planck Institute15 Memorial University of Newfoundland16 University of Western Ontario17 University of Cambridge18 University of Aberdeen19 University of Tartu20 Washington State University21 Ancestry.com DNA LLC22 Ontario Institute for Cancer Research23 Bashkir State University24 State Museum for Oriental Art25 Greenland National Museum and Archives26 Northwestern University27 University of Utah28 Russian Academy of Medical Sciences29 Stockholm University30 University of Kansas31 Stanford University32 University of California at Berkeley33 Pennsylvania State University34 University of Toronto35 Memorial University of Newfoundland36 University of Cambridge37 University of Tartu38 Ontario Institute for Cancer Research39 Bashkir State University40 Northwestern University41 University of Utah42 Russian Academy of Medical Sciences43 Stockholm University44 University of Kansas45 Stanford University46 University of California at Berkeley
The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking. We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, and Siberia. We show that Paleo-Eskimos (similar to 3000 BCE to 1300 CE) represent a migration pulse into the Americas independent of both Native American and Inuit expansions. Furthermore, the genetic continuity characterizing the Paleo-Eskimo period was interrupted by the arrival of a new population, representing the ancestors of present-day Inuit, with evidence of past gene flow between these lineages. Despite periodic abandonment of major Arctic regions, a single Paleo-Eskimo metapopulation likely survived in near-isolation for more than 4000 years, only to vanish around 700 years ago.
Science, 2014, Vol 345, Issue 6200
Alaska; Arctic Regions; Base Sequence; Bone and Bones; Canada; DNA, Mitochondrial; Genome, Human; Greenland; Hair; History, Ancient; Human Migration; Humans; Inuits; Molecular Sequence Data; Siberia; Survivors; Tooth; Historical Article; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Alaska USA, North America Nearctic region; Aleutian Islands North Pacific Pacific Ocean; Arctic Ocean Arctic Ocean; Canada North America Nearctic region; Greenland Nearctic region; Siberia Russia, Asia, Europe Palearctic region; archeology; gene flow; genetic prehistory; genome-wide sequence data; geographical distribution; species migration; Primates Mammalia Vertebrata Chordata Animalia (Animals, Chordates, Humans, Mammals, Primates, Vertebrates) - Hominidae  human common Fossil Native American, Inuit; 03506, Genetics - Animal; 03508, Genetics - Human; 03509, Genetics - Population genetics; 05000, Physical anthropology and ethnobiology; 10062, Biochemistry studies - Nucleic acids, purines and pyrimidines; 62520, Chordata: general and systematic - Mammalia; 63000, Paleozoology; 64500, Paleobiology; Population Studies; GSE59546 Gene Expression Omnibus nucleotide sequence; PRJEB6516 European Nucleotide Archive nucleotide sequence; Anthropology; Human Geography; Paleobiology; Population Genetics; MULTIDISCIPLINARY; POPULATION HISTORY; GENOME SEQUENCE; MTDNA VARIATION; GREENLAND; ADMIXTURE; AMERICA; CANADA; ESKIMO; DORSET; DIVERSITY; Research Articles; GENETICS; ONLINE