This paper investigates sources of error for a vector velocity volume flow estimator. Quantification of the estima tor’s accuracy is performed theoretically and investigated in vivo . Womersley’s model for pulsatile flow is used to simulate velo city profiles and calculate volume flow errors in cases of elliptic al vessels and not placing the transducer at the vessel center. Simulations show, i.e., that volume flow is underestimated w ith 5 %, when the transducer is placed 15 % from the vessel center. Twenty patients with arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialys is are scanned in a clinical study. A BK Medical UltraView 800 ultrasound scanner with a 9 MHz linear array transducer is used to obtain Vector Flow Imaging sequences of a superficial part of the fistulas. Cross-sectional diameters of each fistu la are measured on B-mode images by rotating the scan plane 90 degrees. The major axis of the fistulas was on average 8.6 % larger than the minor axis, so elliptic dimensions should be taken into account in volume flow estimation. The ultrasound beam w as on average 1.5 ± 0.8 mm off-axis, corresponding to 28.5 ± 11.3 % of the major semi-axis of a fistula, and this could result in 15 % underestimated volume flow according to the simulation. Volume flow estimates were corrected for the beam being off- axis, but was not able to significantly decrease the error rel ative to measurements with the reference method.
Proceedings of Ieee International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2014, p. 1714-1717
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2014 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2014