results from a Danish multicentre study (2009-2012)
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the prevalence of contact allergy to isothiazolinones has reached epidemic levels. Few studies have presented data on occupations at risk of developing contact allergy to isothiazolinones. OBJECTIVES: To present demographics and examine risk factors for sensitization to methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) in combination with MI and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) in Danish dermatitis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective epidemiological analysis of data from three Danish hospitals departments was conducted. All patients consecutively patch tested with MI, MCI/MI and BIT between 2009 and 2013 were included. RESULTS: MI contact allergy showed a significantly increased trend in prevalence from 1.8% in 2009 to 4.2% in 2012 (p < 0.001). Females with facial dermatitis mainly drove the increase in 2012. Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that MI sensitization was significantly associated with occupational exposures, hand and facial dermatitis, age > 40 years, and the occupational groups of tile setters/terrazzo workers, machine operators, and painters. MCI/MI contact allergy was significantly associated with the following high-risk occupations: painting, welding (blacksmiths), machine operating, and cosmetology. The occupational group of painting was frequent in the group of patients with BIT contact allergy. CONCLUSION: Several high-risk occupations for sensitization to isothiazolinones exist. Regulation on the allowed concentration of isothiazolinones, and especially MI, in both consumer products and industrial products is needed.
Contact Dermatitis, 2014, Vol 71, Issue 5, p. 295-302