Numerical simulation and physical modeling performed on small-scale ingots made from pure lead, having a hole drilled through their centerline to mimic porosity, are utilized to characterize the deformation mechanics of a single open die forging compression stage and to identify the influence of the lower V-die angle on porosity closure and forging load requirements of large cast ingots. Results show that a lower V-die angle of 120 provides the best closure of centerline porosity without demanding the highest forging loads or developing unreasonably asymmetric shapes that may create difficulties in multi-stage open die forging procedures.
Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Proceedings. Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 2014, Vol 228, Issue 13, p. 2347-2356
Open die forging; V-shaped die; Porosity closure; Physical Modeling; Numerical simulation