1 Coordinating Research Centre, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, The Capital Region of Denmark2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia; email@example.com Phramongkutklao Hospital4 Kentucky Pediatric and Adult, Inc.5 Center for Research in Population Health, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca Morelos, Mexico;6 Clinical Research Center, Medellín, Colombia;7 Primary Physicians Research, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania;8 University of South Dakota9 Haukeland University Hospital10 Merck & Co, Inc
BACKGROUND: We present a long-term safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness study of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccine. METHODS: Sexually naive boys and girls aged 9 to 15 years (N = 1781) were assigned (2:1) to receive HPV4 vaccine or saline placebo at day 1 and months 2 and 6. At month 30, the placebo group (n = 482) received HPV4 vaccine following the same regimen and both cohorts were followed through month 96. Subjects ≥16 years were eligible for effectiveness evaluations. The primary objective was to evaluate the long-term anti-HPV6/11/16/18 serological levels. The secondary objective was to estimate vaccine effectiveness against HPV6/11/16/18-related persistent infection or disease. RESULTS: For each of the HPV4 vaccine types, vaccination-induced anti-HPV response persisted through month 96. Among 429 subjects who received HPV4 vaccine at a mean age of 12, none developed HPV6/11/16/18-related disease or persistent infection of ≥12 months' duration. Acquisition of new sexual partners (among those ≥16 years) was ∼1 per year. Subjects receiving HPV4 vaccine at month 30 (mean age 15 years) had a similar baseline rate of seropositivity to ≥1 of the 4 HPV types to those vaccinated at day 1 (mean age 12 years; 1.9% [9 of 474] vs 1.7% [20 of 1157]); however, 4 of the 9 subjects vaccinated at the later age were seropositive to 3 vaccine types, indicating previous HPV exposure. No new significant serious adverse events were observed for 8 years postvaccination in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: When administered to adolescents, the HPV4 vaccine demonstrated durability in clinically effective protection and sustained antibody titers over 8 years.