Background: Data on occurrence and risk factors for pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are sparse. Methods: This was a nationwide population-based study assessing occurrence and risk factors for PCP among patients with ESRD and population controls over a 21-year period (1/1 1990 to 31/12 2010). Using Danish registry data, first-time diagnoses of PCP were identified. Results: We identified 13 296 adult patients with ESRD and 244 255 controls, yielding 63 560 and 2 223 660 person-years of follow-up (PYFU), respectively. Fifty-eight first-time diagnoses of PCP were recorded in the ESRD group. Forty-six episodes occurred among renal transplant recipients (RTx) and 12 among haemodialysis patients (HD), yielding incidence rates of 181 (136-242) and 43.1 (24.5-75.9) per 100 000 PYFU. Compared to population controls, we found incidence rate-ratios of 125.9 (78.4-204) among RTx and 29.9 (14.1-59.7) among HD patients. Risk factors for PCP in RTx were age 50-65 years, age > 65 years, diabetes, polycystic kidney disease and hypertensive kidney disease/nephrosclerosis with an IRR of 2.22 (1.14-4.31), 3.12 (1.35-7.21), 3.44 (1.16-10.2), 4.25 (1.55-11.7) and 3.87 (1.49-10.0), respectively, and more than 36 months of dialysis before transplantation with an IRR of 1.99 (1.03-3.84). Among RTx the risk of PCP was highest during the first 6 months post-transplantation and increased from the beginning (IR1990-94 = 111 (46.3-267) per 100 000 PYFU) towards the end of the study period (IR2005-10 = 299 (203-439)). Conclusion: The PCP risk is substantial in RTx within the first 6 months of transplantation, emphasizing the potential benefit of prophylactic treatment in the early post-transplant period. Importantly, we identified subgroups within the RTx group that require more attention.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2014, Vol 46, Issue 10, p. 704-11