This study aimed to investigate women's perspectives and experiences with screening for osteoporosis. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted. Three main themes emerged: knowledge about osteoporosis, psychological aspects of screening, and moral duty. Generally, screening was accepted due to life experiences, self-perceived risk, and the preventive nature of screening. PURPOSE: The risk-stratified osteoporosis strategy evaluation (ROSE) study is a randomized prospective population-based trial investigating the efficacy of a screening program to prevent fractures in women aged 65-80 years. It is recommended by the World Health Organization that a set of criteria are met before a screening program is implemented. This sub-study aims to investigate women's perspectives and experiences with the ROSE screening program in relation to the patient-related criteria recommended by the World Health Organization. METHODS: A qualitative study was carried out involving 31 women by way of 8 focus group interviews and 11 individual interviews. Principles from critical psychology guided the analysis. RESULTS: Women's perspectives and experiences with the screening program were described by three main themes: knowledge about osteoporosis, psychological aspects of screening, and moral duty. The women viewed the program in the context of their everyday life and life trajectories. Age, lifestyle, and knowledge about osteoporosis were important to how women ascribed meaning to the program, how they viewed the possibilities and limitations, and how they rationalized their actions and choices. The women displayed limited knowledge about osteoporosis and its risk factors. However, acceptance was based on prior experience, perceived risk, and evaluation of preventive measures. To be reassured or concerned by screening was described as important issues, as well as the responsibility for health-seeking behaviour. CONCLUSION: In general, the women accepted the screening program. No major ethical reservations or adverse psychological consequences were detected. Only a minority of women declined screening participation due to a low perceived risk of osteoporosis.