Population screening may harm quality of life (QoL), and traditional health-related QoL tools could be inadequate to evaluate this risk. Two global and generic QoL instruments were developed for studying the QoL consequences of screening (SCREENQOL), and QoL variation in a normal population (SEQOL). SCREENQOL and SEQOL (Self-Evaluation of Quality of Life Questionnaire) are self-administered questionnaires with items rated on 5-point Likert scales. SCREENQOL consists of 21 items measuring QoL across 6 different dimensions based upon validated QoL questionnaires. SEQOL consists of 317 items measuring QoL across 8 different dimensions, based on an integrative theory of QoL, a theoretical framework from a Danish QoL survey involving 7,222 persons 31 to 33 years old. For further validation, SEQOL and SCREENQOL were sent to 2,460 persons 18 to 88 years old randomly selected from the Danish Central Person Register together with Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) and Sickness Impact Profile (SIP). For SCREENQOL and SEQOL, test-retest reliability correlation was both >0.8, Cronbach's alpha was 0.65 and 0.75, correlation (r) to NHP was 0.67 and 0.49, to SIP 0.46 and 0.27, respectively (p <0.05). Adjustment for health status made the correlation to SIP stronger among the sick (r = 0.68 and 0.41, respectively). For SCREENQOL and SEQOL, 61 and 111 respondents were needed to detect 3% difference in QoL. SCREENQOL and SEQOL are both valid as they show high levels of reliability, sensitivity, and consistency.
Scientific World Journal, 2003, Vol 3, p. 412-21
Mass Screening; Quality of Life; Questionnaires; Reproducibility of Results; Sensitivity and Specificity