BackgroundOptimal fluid resuscitation strategy following combined traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) remain controversial and the effect of resuscitation infusion speed on outcome is not well known. We have previously reported that bolus infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) protects the brain compared with bolus infusion of 0.9% normal saline (NS). We now hypothesize reducing resuscitation infusion speed through a stepwise infusion speed increment protocol using either FFP or NS would provide neuroprotection compared with a high speed resuscitation protocol.Methods23 Yorkshire swine underwent a protocol of computer controlled TBI and 40% hemorrhage. Animals were left in shock (mean arterial pressure of 35 mmHg) for two hours prior to resuscitation with bolus FFP (n¿=¿5, 50 ml/min) or stepwise infusion speed increment FFP (n¿=¿6), bolus NS (n¿=¿5, 165 ml/min) or stepwise infusion speed increment NS (n¿=¿7). Hemodynamic variables over a 6-hour observation phase were recorded. Following euthanasia, brains were harvested and lesion size as well as brain swelling was measured.ResultsBolus FFP resuscitation resulted in greater brain swelling (22.36¿±¿1.03% vs. 15.58¿±¿2.52%, p¿=¿0.04), but similar lesion size compared with stepwise resuscitation. This was associated with a lower cardiac output (CO: 4.81¿±¿1.50 l/min vs. 5.45¿±¿1.14 l/min, p¿=¿0.03). In the NS groups, bolus infusion resulted in both increased brain swelling (37.24¿±¿1.63% vs. 26.74¿±¿1.33%, p¿=¿0.05) as well as lesion size (3285.44¿±¿130.81 mm3 vs. 2509.41¿±¿297.44 mm3, p¿=¿0.04). This was also associated with decreased cardiac output (NS: 4.37¿±¿0.12 l/min vs. 6.35¿±¿0.10 l/min, p¿<¿0.01).ConclusionsIn this clinically relevant model of combined TBI and HS, stepwise resuscitation protected the brain compared with bolus resuscitation.
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, 2014, Vol 22, Issue 1
Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.