1 Department of Clinical Microbiology, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, The Capital Region of Denmark2 Urology, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, The Capital Region of Denmark3 The hospital pharmacy, The Capital Region of Denmark
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are extensively used as prophylaxis for transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate (TRUBP). Emerging fluoroquinolone resistance and selection of multiresistant organisms warrant new prophylactic strategies. Pivmecillinam and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid have mutual synergistic activity and the combination of these agents has a broad coverage of the majority of microorganisms causing infectious complications after TRUBP and may be a valuable future prophylactic regimen. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 2624 men that underwent TRUBP at a Danish university hospital. The patients were divided into three groups. Group 1 (n = 1220) received ciprofloxacin before TRUBP, Group 2 (n = 240) received a combination of pivmecillinam and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid before TRUBP and Group 3 (n = 1161) received an extended prophylaxis with pivmecillinam and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid before and for 2 days after TRUBP. RESULTS: One hundred and ten out of 148 (74.3%) post-TRUBP infections were caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Enterococcus faecalis. Group 3 with the extended prophylaxis with pivmecillinam and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid had a significantly lower rate of bacteraemia (0.9%) as compared with Group 1 (1.8%) and Group 2 (3.7%). A significant fall in the proportion of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was observed from the period when ciprofloxacin was used as prophylaxis (8.1%) compared with the subsequent period when pivmecillinam and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was used (5.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of pivmecillinam and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is an attractive prophylaxis for TRUBP from a clinical, bacteriological and ecological point of view as compared with ciprofloxacin.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2014, Vol 69, Issue 12, p. 3372-3378