Hebnes, Julie B2; Olesen, Tina B2; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine2; Munk, Christian2; Norrild, Bodil2; Kjaer, Susanne K1
1 Gynækologisk Klinik, Juliane Marie Centre, Rigshospitalet, The Capital Region of Denmark2 unknown
systematic review and meta-analysis
INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest sexually transmitted infection worldwide and causes substantial morbidity in both sexes. Most European countries offer HPV vaccination for girls, but vaccine recommendations for boys are warranted. AIMS: The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of genital HPV, identify parameters that affect the prevalence, and describe the type-specific prevalence among men in Europe. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature in PubMed and Embase. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Genital HPV prevalence and factors influencing prevalence in general and high-risk male populations in Europe. RESULTS: We included 31 articles that gave the prevalence of genital HPV DNA among men in northern, southern and western Europe; no studies from eastern Europe were identified. The pooled HPV prevalence among 1,863 men representing the general population (nine studies) was 12.4%, with large heterogeneity between studies (I(2) = 96.3%, P < 0.0001). The pooled HPV prevalence among 6,428 men in the high-risk population (22 studies) was 30.9%, also with substantial heterogeneity (I(2) = 95.6%, P < 0.0001). In unadjusted meta-regression analysis, the HPV prevalence in the general population was significantly higher in studies published after 2000 (28.5%) than in earlier studies (8.8%) (P = 0.0179). In the meta-regression analysis adjusted by publication year, the heterogeneity in the two population groups could not be explained by geographical region, anatomical sampling site, or HPV detection method. HPV16 was the most prevalent high-risk type in both populations. CONCLUSIONS: HPV prevalence differs in male general and high-risk populations, but HPV16 and HPV18 are among the most common HPV types detected in both groups. Our findings contribute knowledge that may be useful as a baseline measure before the introduction of HPV vaccination for boys in Europe, and add to understanding of the epidemiology of HPV infection in men.
Journal of Sexual Medicine, 2014, Vol 11, Issue 11, p. 2630-44