1 Proteomics Program, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet3 Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University , 5047 Gullen Mall, Detroit, Michigan 48202, United States.4 unknown5 Proteomics Program, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
SUMOylation is an essential posttranslational modification and regulates many cellular processes. Dysregulation of SUMOylation plays a critical role in metastasis, yet how its perturbation affects this lethal process of cancer is not well understood. We found that SUMO-2/3 modification is greatly up-regulated in metastatic breast cancer cells compared with nonmetastatic control cells. To identify proteins differentially modified by SUMO-2/3 between metastatic and nonmetastatic cells, we established a method in which endogenous SUMO-2/3 conjugates are labeled by stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), immunopurified by SUMO-2/3 monoclonal antibodies and epitope-peptide elution, and analyzed by quantitative mass spectrometry. We identified 66 putative SUMO-2/3-conjugated proteins, of which 15 proteins show a significant increase/decrease in SUMO-2/3 modification in metastatic cells. Targets with altered SUMOylation are involved in cell cycle, migration, inflammation, glycolysis, gene expression, and SUMO/ubiquitin pathways, suggesting that perturbations of SUMO-2/3 modification might contribute to metastasis by affecting these processes. Consistent with this, up-regulation of PML SUMO-2/3 modification corresponds to an increased number of PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) in metastatic cells, whereas up-regulation of global SUMO-2/3 modification promotes 3D cell migration. Our findings provide a foundation for further investigating the effects of SUMOylation on breast cancer progression and metastasis.
Journal of Proteome Research, 2014, Vol 13, Issue 9