1 Department of Political Science, The Faculty of Social Sciences, Aalborg University, VBN2 Center for Mobility Research, The Faculty of Social Sciences, Aalborg University, VBN3 Aalborg University Copenhagen, The Faculty of Humanities, Aalborg University, VBN4 The Faculty of Social Sciences, Aalborg University, VBN5 Concordia University
Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has evolved over the life of the respondent and is, thus, more a product of the human capital formation process than some latent or fundamental measure of pure cognitive ability. We find that variables which are not closely associated with traditional notions of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture and possible incentive problems make it more di¢ cult to understand what the tests measure.
Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 2014, Vol 58, Issue 4, p. 435-452
human capital, educational production functions, test scores, ability, unobservable heterogeneity and types.