persistent high risk among HIV-infected injecting drug users
BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is an important cause of morbidity among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We described incidence and risk factors for IPD in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. METHODS: Nationwide population-based cohort study of HIV-infected adults treated at all Danish HIV treatment centers during 1995-2012. Nineteen population-matched controls per HIV-infected individual were retrieved. The risk of IPD was assessed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The incidence of IPD was 304.7 cases per 100 000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) in HIV-infected and 12.8 per 100 000 PYFU in HIV-uninfected individuals. After adjusting for confounders, HIV infection (relative risk [RR], 24.4 [95% confidence interval [CI], 23.7-25.1]), male sex (RR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.16-1.24]), increasing age (per year) (RR, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.03-1.04]), and calendar period (pre-cART RR, 2.80 [95% CI, 2.70-2.91] compared with late cART) were significantly associated with an increased risk of IPD. Among HIV-infected individuals, male sex (RR, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.49-1.66]), smoking (RR, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.26-1.42]), and injecting drug use (RR, 2.51 [95% CI, 2.26-2.67]) were associated with an increased risk of IPD. Detectable viral loads (RR, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.79-1.98]) and a relative fall in CD4 T-cell counts were also associated with an increased risk (≥500 to 350-500 CD4 T cells/µL: RR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.21-1.37] and <100 cells/µL: RR, 7.4 [95% CI, 6.87-8.02]). The risk of IPD declined over time, although this was not the case for IDUs where the risk remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of IPD in HIV-infected individuals remained significantly higher than the incidence observed in non-HIV-infected subjects, despite the widespread use of cART. IDUs have a persistently high risk of IPD. Injecting drug use, smoking, and the receipt of cART are suitable targets for preventive measures in the future.
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2014, Vol 59, Issue 8, p. 1168-76